Acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to an abrupt decrease in kidney function, resulting in the retention of urea and other nitrogenous waste products and in the dysregulation of extracellular volume and electrolytes.
• ↑ in SCr by ≥0.3mg/dl within 48 hours; or • ↑ in SCr to ≥ 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within 7 days; or • Urine volume < 0.5ml/kg/h for 6 hours.
Definition of the terms
• Azotemia: is an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels.
• Uremia: is a clinical syndrome characterised by marked elevated concentrations of urea in the blood.
• Oliguria: UOP < 500ml/24hrs
• Anuria: No urine output or less than <100 ml/24hrs

EPIDEMIOLOGY
• In the USA aprox 1% of patients admitted to hospital have AKI at time of admission. • Estimated Incidence rate of AKI during hospitalization is 2-5% and raise up to 67% in ICU patients. • About 1.7mil death are thought to be caused by AKI annually in African (Mehta et al 2015). • Most leading cause of AKI in Tanzania due to: local herbs , post partum complications, infections and abortions related complications.

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